The expected rebound has not happened; New Orleans has greater inequality ten years after Katrina than previously and, according to a Brookings Institute report, than the average inequality across the United States.
Other cities have made changes through intentional focus on social issues and broad-based collaboration. According to the Brookings Institute report:
Putting a region on a better economic trajectory can be done. Louisville, Pittsburgh, and San Diego are cities that experienced dramatic turnarounds as a result of decades of deliberate civic focus and collaboration. Whether prompted by the collapse of manufacturing and steel or over-reliance on military and defense spending, each of these cities and regions are now known as centers of innovation and entrepreneurship in advanced manufacturing, hi-tech robotics, and life sciences, anchored by applied research capability and strong industry partnerships with universities. They also think and act regionally. Louisville not only merged their city and county to unify behind a common economic vision but they are also collaborating with nearby Lexington to solidify shared advanced manufacturing strengths. Their manufacturers, led by Ford, Toyota, and GE Appliances, have forged their own regional collaboration around apprenticeships and workforce training.